DIN Electrical installations in residential buildings – Part 1: Planning principles. standard by Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V. DIN DE. Elektrische Anlagen in Wohngebäuden – Teil 1: Planungsgrundlagen (Foreign Standard). Diese Norm gilt für die Planung von. Draft standard DIN – Draft. Electrical installations in residential buildings – Part 1: Planning principles. German title: Elektrische.

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Using a relative indicator, e. It is also listed in the tables but has already been included in the calculation of the table.

## Electrical installations in residential buildings – Part 1: Planning principles

Analogous investigations should now be carried out for 180151- other load profiles. The installation method be B1 again. Despite all the uncertainty with this precise, but estimate-based calculation, the factor of 6, on the other hand, allows for quite a certain assumption that the additional investment would have paid off until today.

In the first example Table 3 the factor F L is very high, since the junction box is only fully utilised on rare occasions on an annual average basis: System Production of copper Recycling copper Availability of copper Life Cycle Corrosion behaviour copper materials Semi-finished copper products Copper composite materials. At least this is what things look like inside an apartment, independently on whether this apartment is located in a single-family building or in a condominium.

Maximum and selected cable lengths; annual losses without electrical warm water supply.

The disadvantage is that this is of no use to us, since transferring the profile from the overall operation to these individual final circuits does not offer a solution.

Oberschwingungen Definitionen Spannung oder Strom?

Good as it is so far, but now how to arrive at the losses? Even if the mentioned guesswork should dln by a whole magnitude in error, this would not change anything about the result. A different approach, however, would have resulted in preposterously short line lengths in the top part of the table, which would have been just as unrealistic. Data underlying the calculations according to Table In that way a method of finding the conductor cross-section with the lowest practical life cycle costs could 18015- found.

### Deutsches Kupferinstitut: Cable efficieny method

With all care that has to be taken with respect to the assumptions and simplifications made, the following results become obvious:. With all care that has to be taken with respect to the assumptions and simplifications made, the following results become obvious: But let us have one more look at the riser supplying a single home, a few or a multitude of homes.

Applying the same procedure to the office from Table 4 turns the table straight away. In other words, this is the root from the quotient of the least uniform by the most uniform load distribution across the year and across the circuits that is at all possible.

Fluorescent Magnetic ballasts principle Magnetic ballast disturbances Compensation Electronic ballasts principle Electronic ballast disturbances Fluorescent lamp efficiency Leuchtstofflampen-Quecksilber.

A creative assumption is required again here, for so long already two calculation models are at hand: However, the synthesis of the two can be developed further:. However, the synthesis of the two can be developed further: Since the office has been in operation for 33 years already, an additional initial investment for conductors upsized to 2.

Maximum and selected cable lengths; annual losses with electrical warm water supply. Further arguments like resource savings and CO 2 reduction would still come on top — if not then, now they would.

If upgrading the conductor cross-section from 1. In the first example Table 3 the factor F L is very high, since the junction box is only fully utilised on rare occasions on an annual average basis:. Due to the relatively coarsely tiered standard sizes and due to the abrupt leap of the voltage drop from 0. Hence, the force to design the conductors to the peak of the occurring load is not really a cost driver but rather a piggy bank, viewed across the lifespan, adding erection and loss costs!

We see that the payback periods — now for only one standard size up — rise to values of 30 or 25 years, respectively. The riser need not be optimized anymore because it has already been energy optimized, although not for energy efficiency but other — compelling — reasons.

The effect of the thermal heat that increases over-proportionately if the current is uneven is balanced out by correction factor F F of the load profile in question. Only they are not sufficient to create a methodology for determining this optimum. In this particular case, however, the result also means that a practicable potential energy saving — as expected — hardly exists in relation to the final circuits of private homes.

An assessment must be found for each individual cable. Of course, the same load profile as for the one and only flat in the first line of the table was also applied to the respective riser. This leads to the relatively high values of 7. The office Attempt to develop a method The multi-family home The single-family home Example 1: What was newly introduced into the table here is the column with the line losses W L occurring in the riser, calculated with the respective line lengths l select.

In fact, every storey takes away its part of the load, and the last section is loaded only more with the current of two flats. Special contract customers Anomalies, characteristics, further action Example 2: Introduction Approach 1 Approach 2 Attempt to develop a method Result: These result in payback times of 7 and 6 years, respectively.

While such a high power is needed for just a few minutes per day, the requirements for larger conductor cross sections are the same as would be for permanent load. This latter observation may be confusing at first sight, since electrical warm water dim, where installed, will let a lot more energy rise up the riser!

Obviously, no relevant difference is seen by grid planners between this and an infinity of users. This result is particularly astonishing if you consider that the 1. Proposal for a method Cable efficiency helpers Outlook. Regarding the quantification of 1801-1 losses, this brings about the question which line length to assume. An individual dwelling — in effect a single-family home — causes losses worth around 40 cents annually.

Over the rest of the day, this larger cross section then reduces the losses. Fortunately a helpful colleague had been prepared to restore the lost data underlying the diagram Fig.

From a qualitative point of view let us stay with simplifying approach 2, of transferring the load profile that is valid for the system in question to the final circuits.