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The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle named after George Brayton that describes the workings of a constant-pressure heat engine. The original Brayton engines used a piston compressor and piston expander, but more modern gas turbine engines and airbreathing jet ciclk also follow the Brayton cycle. Although the cycle is usually run as an open system and indeed must be run as such if internal combustion is usedit is conventionally assumed for the purposes of thermodynamic ciclp that the exhaust gases are reused in the intake, enabling analysis as a closed system.
The engine cycle is named after George Brayton —the American engineer who developed it originally for use in piston engines, although jouke was originally proposed and patented by Englishman John Barber in The reversed Joule cycle uses an external heat source and incorporates the use of a regenerator.
Two types of Brayton cycles are open to the atmosphere and using internal combustion chamber or closed and using a heat exchanger. InGeorge Brayton applied for a patent for his “Ready Motor”, a reciprocating constant-pressure engine. The engine was a two-stroke and produced power braytpn every revolution. Brayton engines used a separate piston compressor and piston expander, with compressed air heated by internal fire as it entered the expander cylinder.
File:Brayton Cycle TS Afterburner.svg
The first versions of the Brayton engine were vapor engines which mixed fuel with air as it entered the compressor by means of a heated-surface carburetor. A screen was used to prevent the fire from entering or returning to the reservoir. In early versions of the engine, this screen sometimes failed and an explosion would occur. InBrayton solved the explosion problem by adding the fuel just prior to the expander cylinder.
The engine now used heavier fuels such as kerosene and fuel oil. Ignition remained a pilot flame. The “Ready Motors” were produced from to sometime in the s; several hundred such motors were likely produced during this time period.
Brayton licensed the design to Simone in the UK. Many variations of the layout were used; some were single-acting and some were double-acting. Some nrayton under walking beams; cico had brayotn walking beams. Both horizontal and vertical models were built. Sizes ranged from less than one to over 40 horsepower. Critics of the time claimed the engines ran smoothly and had a reasonable efficiency.
Brayton-cycle engines were some of the first internal combustion engines used for motive power. InJohn Holland used a Brayton engine to power the world’s first self-propelled submarine Holland boat 1. Ina Brayton engine was used to power a second submarine, the Fenian Ram.
InGeorge B. Selden patented the first internal combustion automobile. He then filed a series of amendments to his application which stretched out the legal process, resulting in a delay of 16 years before the patent  was granted on Bratton 5, BrayyonSelden sued Ford for patent infringement and Henry Ford fought the Selden patent until Selden had never actually produced a working car, so during the trial, two machines were constructed according to the patent drawings.
Ford argued his cars used the four-stroke Alphonse Beau de Rochas cycle or Otto cycle and not the Brayton-cycle engine used in the Selden auto. Ford won the appeal of the original case. InBrayton developed and patented a four-stroke direct-injection oil engine US patentofapplication filed in The fuel system used a variable-quantity pump and liquid-fuel, high-pressure, spray-type injection. The liquid was forced through a spring-loaded, relief-type valve injector which caused the fuel to become divided into small droplets.
Injection was timed to occur at or near the peak of the compression stroke.
File:Brayton – Wikimedia Commons
A platinum brxyton provided the source of ignition. Brayton describes the invention as: In this manner, the engine fired on every power stroke and speed and output were controlled solely by the quantity of fuel injected. InBrayton developed and patented a four-stroke, air-blast oil engine US patentThe fuel system delivered a variable quantity of vaporized fuel to the center of the cylinder under pressure at or near the peak of the compression stroke.
The ignition source was an igniter made from platinum wire. A variable-quantity injection bratyon provided the fuel to an injector where it was mixed with air as it entered the cylinder. A small crank-driven compressor provided the source for air. This engine also used the lean-burn system. Rudolf Diesel originally proposed a very high compression, constant-temperature cycle where the heat of compression would exceed the heat of combustion, but after several years of experiments, he realized that the constant-temperature cycle would not work in a piston engine.
Early Diesel engines use an air blast system which was pioneered by Brayton in Consequently, these early engines use the constant-pressure cycle. Just like steam turbines were adopted from steam piston engine, so were gas turbines adopted from early piston constant-pressure engines.
A Brayton-type engine consists of three components: Modern Brayton engines are almost always a turbine type, although Brayton only made piston engines. In the original 19th-century Brayton engine, bryton air is drawn into a piston compressor, where it is compressed ; ideally an isentropic process. The compressed air then runs through a mixing chamber where fuel is added, an isobaric process.
Gas turbines are also Brayton engines. This also has three components: Since neither the compression nor the expansion can be beayton isentropic, losses through the compressor and the expander represent sources of inescapable working inefficiencies.
In general, increasing the compression ratio is the most direct way to increase the overall power output of a Brayton system. Figure 2 indicates how the specific power output changes with an increase in the gas turbine inlet temperature for two different pressure ratio values. The highest temperature in the cycle occurs at the end of the combustion process, and it is limited by the maximum temperature that the turbine blades can withstand.
This also limits the pressure ratios that can be used in the cycle. For a fixed-turbine inlet temperature, the net work output per cycle increases with the pressure ratio thus the thermal efficiency and the net work output. With less work output per cycle, a jou,e mass flow rate thus a larger system is needed to maintain the same power output, which may not be economical. In most common designs, the pressure ratio of a gas turbine ranges from about 11 to A closed Brayton cycle recirculates the working fluid ; the air expelled from the turbine is reintroduced into the compressor, this cycle uses a heat exchanger to heat the working fluid instead of an internal combustion chamber.
The closed Brayton cycle is used, for example, in closed-cycle gas turbine and space power generation. Further hybridization was achieved during the EU Solhyco project running a hybridized Brayton cycle with solar energy and biodiesel only. A Brayton cycle that is driven in reverse, via net work input, and when air is the working fluid, is the gas refrigeration cycle or Bell Coleman cycle.
Its purpose is to move heat, rather than produce work. This air-cooling technique is used widely in jet aircraft for air conditioning systems using bleed air tapped from the engine compressors. It is also used in the LNG industry where the largest reverse Brayton cycle braytpn for subcooling LNG using 86 MW of power from a gas turbine-driven compressor and nitrogen refrigerant.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Thermodynamics The classical Carnot heat engine. Classical Statistical Chemical Quantum thermodynamics.
Zeroth First Second Third. Conjugate variables in italics. Carnot’s theorem Clausius theorem Fundamental relation Ideal gas law. Free energy Free entropy. History General Heat Entropy Gas laws. Entropy and time Entropy and life Brownian ratchet Maxwell’s demon Heat death paradox Loschmidt’s paradox Synergetics.
The classical Carnot heat engine. Laws Brrayton First Second Third. Heat engines Heat pumps Thermal efficiency. Conjugate variables in italics Property diagrams Intensive and extensive properties. Material properties Property databases Specific heat capacity.
Equations Carnot’s theorem Clausius theorem Fundamental relation Ideal gas law Maxwell relations Onsager reciprocal relations Bridgman’s equations Table of thermodynamic equations.
Caloric theory Theory of heat Vis viva “living force” Mechanical equivalent of heat Motive power. Maxwell’s thermodynamic surface Entropy as energy dispersal.
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