The goal of the ABAP Workbench Foundations (BC) course is for you to gain a detailed knowledge of the fundamental concepts of ABAP. In this course, students gain knowledge of the fundamental concepts of ABAP and learn how to comfortably and efficiently work with the ABAP Workbench tools . ABAP/4 Development Workbench. Objectives Chapter 2. The ABAP/4 Programming Language. ABAP/4 Development Workbench Architecture. ABAP/4 : General.

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The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software abao marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain bc4400 software components of other software vendors. All other products mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. About This Handbook This handbook is intended to complement the instructor-led presentation of this course, and serve as a source of reference.

It is not suitable for self-study.

Typographic Conventions American English is the standard used in this handbook. The following typographic conventions are also used. Type Style Description Example text Words or characters that appear on the screen. These include field names, screen titles, pushbuttons as well as menu names, paths, and options.

Also used for cross-references to other documentation both internal in this documentation and external in other locations, such as SAPNet.

This includes file and directory names and their paths, messages, names of variables and parameters, and passages of the source text of a program. Example text Exact user entry. These are words and characters that you enter in the system exactly as they appear in the documentation. Pointed brackets indicate that you replace these words and characters with appropriate entries. Icons in Body Text The following icons are used in this handbook. Introduction to Event Blocks Software Logistics and Software Adjustment Organization of Development and Transport Enhancing the Standard Software In both cases, we will be focusing on concepts and fundamental principles.

We also introduce the appropriate terminology, so that you will find it easier to understand the in-depth documentation. We always handle these topics using practical application examples, so that you can immediately implement what you have learnt here. Above all, it should also be clear how little effort is needed, using the ABAP Workbench, to create high-performance business applications rapidly. We are convinced that this course enables you to start developing immediately and provides the knowledge you will need to focus on the essentials in subsequent courses.

Target Audience This course is intended for the following audiences: Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: In the SAP Web Application Server, presentations, application logic, and data storage can be assigned to different systems.

This serves as the basis for the scalability of the system. The lowest level is the database level. This data includes, apart from application data, the programs and the metadata that the system requires for self-management. The ABAP programs run at the application server level, that is, both the applications provided by SAP and the ones you develop yourself.


The ABAP programs read data from the database level, process the data, and possibly also store data there. The third level is the presentation server level. This level contains the user interface through which each user can access the program, enter new data, and receive the results of a work process. The technical distribution of software is independent of its physical location on the hardware.

Vertically, all levels can be installed on top of each other on one computer or each level on a separate computer. Horizontally, the presentation and application servers can be divided among any number of computers. The horizontal distribution of database components, however, depends on the type of database installed.

The interaction between one user and one ABAP program will be of primary interest to us during this course. The exact processes involved in user dispatching on an application server are secondary to understanding how to write an ABAP program.

Therefore, we will be working with a simplified graphic that does not explicitly show the dispatcher and the work process. Certain graphics will, however, be enhanced to include these details whenever they are relevant to ABAP programming.

ABAP programs are processed on the application server. The design of user dialogs and database accesses is therefore of particular importance when writing application programs. View for the User The user is only interested in how his or her business transaction flows and how data can be entered and output within the transaction.

The technical aspects of programming are less interesting for the user. The user does not need to know the precise flow of the ABAP program on the application server. Technically speaking, however, there are three different types of screens: Each type of screen provides different services to the user. Here the task of the developer is to select for each user dialog exactly those types that are most suitable for the accomplishment of the tasks concerned. For this purpose, exact knowledge of the technical aspects is very helpful.

Interaction Between Server Layers Once the user performs a user action choosing Enter, a function key, a menu function, or a pushbutton, for examplecontrol is passed from the presentation server to the application server. Only certain parts of the ABAP program are processed.

If a further user dialog is triggered from within the ABAP program, the system transmits the screen, and control is once again passed to the presentation server. Program Start Whenever a user logs on to the system, a screen is displayed. From this screen, the user can start an ABAP program through the menu path. System Loads Program Context In this case, the system first loads the program context onto the application server.

The program context contains memory areas for variables and complex data objects, information on the screens for user dialogs, and ABAP processing blocks. The runtime system gets all this program information from the Repository, which is a special part of the database.

The sample program has a selection screen as the user dialog, a variable and a structure as data objects, and one ABAP processing block. The list that is used to display the data is created dynamically at runtime. The ABAP runtime system controls the subsequent program flow. The presentation server controls the program flow for as long as the user enters data in the input fields.


Selection screens allow users to enter selection criteria required by the program for it to continue. Input Values Are Inserted into Data Objects As soon as the user has finished entering data on the selection screen, he or she can trigger further processing of the program by choosing Execute.

The entered data is then automatically placed in its corresponding data objects in the program and the ABAP runtime system resumes control of processing. In our simple program example there is only one ABAP processing block. If the entries made by the user do not have the correct type, then an error message is automatically triggered.

Cursus: ABAP Workbench Foundations [BC] – Springest

Therefore, information about which database table is to be accessed and which row in the table is to be read is passed to the database. Database Returns Data Record to Program The database returns the requested data record to the program and the runtime system ensures that this data is placed in the appropriate data objects.

If a single record is accessed, this data object is usually a structure that contains components for all the required database fields. Runtime System Sends List The layout of the subsequent list display has also been programmed into the processing block. After its completion, the runtime system sends this list as a screen to the presentation server.

How the Topics are Organized in this Course Using this example program, we can cover numerous topics that are part of this course. We want to take the opportunity to again supply an orientation aid for the course flow.

Repository and Object Navigator Developing Programs and Organizing Developments Creating a Transaction Code Also, it presents the Object Navigator as a central development tool. Introduction to the Repository Figure Repository and Object Navigator The database contains application and Customizing tables that are usually client-specific.

In addition, the database also contains the Repository. The Repository thus contains all the development objects, for example, programs, definitions of database tables, or central data type definitions.

BC Introduction to the ABAP Workbench | Livio Barone –

Development objects are therefore also known as repository objects. Repository objects are always cross-client. They can therefore be used and changed in all clients. Structure of the Repository The Repository is subdivided according to application components.

ABAP Workbench Foundation

Within each application component, there are several packages, which are an even finer logical subdivision. Repository objects are often made up of subobjects that are themselves repository objects. Each repository object must be assigned to abxp package when it is created. SAP Application Hierarchy The structure of the application components is depicted in the application hierarchy.

The application components are displayed in a tree structure in the application hierarchy. Expanding a component displays all the packages that are assigned to that component.

You can select subtrees and navigate from the application hierarchy into the Repository Information System. The system then collects all packages for the subtrees selected and passes them to the Information System.